Igbo facts

PARTS OF SPEECH (NKEJIASỤSỤ)

with Stephen Chimezie Igbokwe

Pallysteve@yahoo.com (08062287908)

PARTS OF SPEECH (NKEJIASỤSỤ)
PARTS OF SPEECH (NKEJIASỤSỤ)

Just as the human body can be classified into different parts, so it is with every language. Each human language has different parts that are combined to make intelligible speech; so it is with the Igbo Language. The Igbo Language has about twenty-nine speech parts when classified into their types and sub-types. Here, we bring to our teeming readers, especially students the various Parts of Speech in Igbo Language.

(1) NOUN: (Aha/Mkpoaha) this literally means name. Noun is the name of a person, place, animal, creature, event, idea or thing, for example, Ngozi, Chukwudi, Mother/Nne, Child/Nwa, House/Ụlọ, Love/Ihunanya, Aba, Imo, Goat/Ewu etc.

For example:

The goat is big Ewu ahu buru ibu
This house is fine Ụlọ a mara mma
Chukwudi loves his wife Chukwudi huru nwunye ya na anya
My mother is rich Nne m nwere ego

TYPES OF NOUN

Proper Noun Ahaaka
Common Noun Ahaizugbe
Collective Noun Ahaigwe
Compound Noun Ahaukwu
Abstract Noun Ahauche/Ahaechereche
Ideophone Noun Ucheuda

2) PRONOUN: (Nnochiaha) Pronouns are used in place of Nouns. For example; Him/ya, He/ya, Ọ; her/ya, Ọ; We, Our/anyị, I/m, You/gi, They/ha etc.

For example:

Give him money Nye ya ego
Give her money Nye ya ego
He has arrived Ọ biala
They have arrived Ha a biala
Our school is big Ụlọ akwukwo anyi buru ibu
We are happy Anyi nwere obi anuri

TYPES OF PRONOUN:

Personal Pronoun Nnochionye
Impersonal Pronoun Nnochimpesin
Possessive Pronoun Nnochinke
Demonstrative Pronoun Nnochingosi
Reflexive Pronoun Nnochionwe/Nnochochinkowa
Emphatic Pronoun Nnochionweonye
Interrogative Pronoun Oluajuju

 

(3) VERB: (Ngwaa). Shows the action in a speech. For example; killed/gburu, ran/gbara, ate/riri, sing/kweeukwe, spoke/kwuru, dance/gbaaegwu etc.

For example:

Chike ate the food in a hurry Chike riri nri ahu osiso
Adaku sang very well Adaku kwere ukwenkeoma
My father killed a snake Nna m gburuagwo
I live in Owerri E bi m na-Owerri
The teacher teaches very well OnyeNkuzina-akuziihenkeoma

 

    • Auxiliary/Modal Verb (Enyemaka/NnyemakaNgwaa) applies so much in Igbo Language just like in English Language. Examples; be, will/would, do, have, may/might, must, can/could, shall/should etc.

 

I will go to Enugu Agam eje Enugu
He will bring the book Ọgaeweta akwukwo ahu
She will bring the car Ọgaebuteugboalaahu
They can come to my house Ha nwereikebian’ulo m

 

    • Present Tense Verb (Ngwaa Ugbua). Verb that shows recent or present action

 

for example:

I come to school every day Ana m aga akwukwo ubochi nile
She eats very fast Ọna-erinriosiso
They are here Ha dina-ebe a

 

    • Past Tense Verb (Ngwaaazu). Verb that shows action done in the past or before

 

for example:

She went to Church      Ọgarauka/O jereuka
I killed a snake      Egburu m agwo
They sang a song      Ha kwereukwe
We played last night      Anyigwuruegwuna-abaliunyahu

 

    • Future Tense Verb (NgwaaNnonihu). Verb that shows an action to come

 

for example:

We shall visit Onitsha next week      Anyiga-eje Onitsha n’izukaọzọ
My father will buy a car      Nna m ga-azutaugboala
I shall be a Pilot      A ga m abuonyaugboelu

 

(4)ADVERB: ( Nkwuwa ). Adverb adds meaning to a verb and adjective, for example; Now/Ugbua (kita), Yesterday/Unyahu (echigaraaga), Today/Taa (tata), Tonight/AbaniaTaa, Tomorrow/Echi, Quickly/Osiso, Slowly/Nwayo-nwayo, Very/Ofuma, Always/Mgbenile, Never/Ma ncha etc

For example:

My father wants you now        Nna m chọrọgiugbua
This lady is very beautiful        Nwaagbọghọa marammankeoma
I will buy the book tomorrow        A ga m egote/azutaakwukwoahuechi
I will buy the book tomorrow        A ga m egote/azutaakwukwoahuechi
Chike is always laughing        Chikena-achiỌchimgbenile
Nnamdi eats slowly        Nnamdina-erinrinwayọnwayọ

CLASSES OF ADVERBS

Adverb of Time Nkwuwaoge
Now                                    Ugbua
Tomorrow                                    Echi
Today                                    Tata/Taa
Yesterday                                    Echigaraaga/Unyahu
Tonight                                    Abania
Always                                    Mgbenile
Never                                    Ma ncha
Soon                                    N’adighianya/Na nsonso

 

Adverb of manner Nkwuwaagwa
Slowly                                     Nwayonwayo
Hastily/quickly                                     Osiso/ngwangwa
Carefully                                     Ijinwayọ
Loudly                                     Itinkpu
Angrily                                     Ijiiwe
Gently                                     Iji obi umeala
Honourably                                     Ijiugwu
Respectfully                                     Ijinsopuru

 

 

(5) ADJECTIVE: (Nkwaaha).Adjective modifies a Noun or Pronoun, for example; beautiful/maramma, hot/okuoku, cold/oyi, tall/Ogologo (ogo), small/obere(ntakiri), white/ocha, dark, black/oji, fat/ibu, tasty/uto etc.

For example:

The tall hunter killed a deer                 Dintaogologoahugburuele
My car is small                 Ugbọala m di obere
That whitehouse belongs to Chima                 Ulọọchaahu bunke Chima
Adaku gave me hot food                 Adakunyere m nri di Ọku
 My mother’s soup is tasty                 Ofenne m siri di ut
Okeke’s daughter is fat                 NwaOkekenkeNwanyiburuibu

 

(6) PREPOSITION:(Mbuuzo)is a word used before a noun or pronoun to specify place, position or time. In Igbo language there is only one preposition “na” but when preceding a vowel it is written without the ‘a’. An apostrophe is added to the ‘n’ (n’). This process is known as OluloUdaume, for example; n’ulo/ n’elu/n’akuku/n’ime/n’ala/ n’oku etc.

For example:

Dike lives in a foreign land Dike bi na mba
Uzo owns a land in Lagos Uzo nwere ala na Lagos
Throw it over the fence Tufee ya n’ofe mgbidi
They left their books on the bed Ha hapuru akwukwo ha n’elu akwa
Let us go behind the house Ka anyi ga n’azu ulọ
He stays beside the Church O bi n’akuku ulọ uka

(7) CONJUNCTION: (NjikỌ/ NjikỌ Okwu). Conjunction connects words, phrases, clauses or sentences in a meaningful way, for example; and, that/na, instead/kama, then/mgbe ahu, until/tupu, as, so/maka, but, if, that, whether/mana, since/ka mgbe etc.

For example:

Peter and Paul Peter na Paul
The teachers and the students Ndi Nkuzi na umu akwukwọ
I wanted pear but he gave me corn A chọrọ m Ube mana O nye m ọka
Instead of goat he brought sheep Kama ọ ga-eweta ewu O weta aturu
As the car refused to start he left it Maka na ugbọ ala azaghi Ọ hapu ya

(8) INTERJECTION/EXCLAMATION: (Ntinye/kwu n’ike). Interjection/Exclamation is a word that expresses feelings such as surprise, pain, shock, gratitude, for example; terrible! Wonderful! /odiegwu! it’s a pity! /chai! Imagine! /hia! Exactly! /gbam! Exactly! /kpomkwem! just look at! /negodu! Lele! What! Incredible! /ewo! Please! /biko! Untrue! /obia!

For example:

This is terrible! Ihe nke a ọdiegwu
Exactly! You have said my mind Gbam, i kwuola ihe di m n’obi
Just look at this stupid act Negodu agwa nzuzu a
It’s a pity! Mr Kalu is dead Chai, Mazi Kalu anwuola
My God! When did this happen? Chineke m, kedu oge nke a mere?
Imagine! Who does he think he is? Hia! Kedu onye o chere na ya bu?

  
THE IGBO ALPHABETS:
English Language has 26 alphabets but Igbo Language has 35 alphabets comprising monothongs and diphthongs. These are:
a b ch d e f g gb gh gw h i ị
j k kp kw l m n nw ny
ŋ O ọ p r s sh t u ụ
w y z

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